Public Health and Internal Medicine

In this section we present a series of reports, information and comments that are inherent in the Public Health and in the Internal Medicine.

 

Neglected or Forgotten Diseases

Neglected or forgotten diseases are those that involve large population groups and are studied by few researchers because the necessary resources to improve and increase knowledge are not available. This is the case in undeveloped or developing societies, unlike in developed societies, a situation that reveals an imbalance between the needs of the affected populations and the investigation of these prevalent pathologies. Studies show that for every year of potential life lost in the developed world, more than 200 times what is spent for every year of potential life lost in these undeveloped, disadvantaged countries in research and medical care. On the other hand, in these countries about 60% of research funding comes from industrialized countries. The pathological situation is characterized by the so-called “epidemiological transition”, characterized by the persistence of communicable diseases, but there is an upward trend in chronic-degenerative diseases (especially cardiovascular diseases), malignancies and accidents, In other words, non-communicable diseases are the most frequent causes of death in industrialized countries, despite the fact that certain communicable diseases (tuberculosis, VIH-AIDS, pneumonia, etc.) are shared.

Globalization and migration explain the fact that pathologies of various kinds are now spread out among the sick throughout the world, which requires the doctor to expand his knowledge. A study by the Rey Juan Carlos University and Mundo Sano through a questionnaire to sixth-year medical students from several universities in Madrid about the five most important in Spain (Chagas, hydatidosis, leishmaniasis, dengue and stronglydiasis), revealed that only 9% of the 100 students surveyed answered more than half of the questions correctly (El País, May 3, 2017).eglected or forgotten diseases are those that involve large population groups and are studied by few researchers because the necessary resources to improve and increase knowledge are not available. This is the case in undeveloped or developing societies, unlike in developed societies, a situation that reveals an imbalance between the needs of the affected populations and the investigation of these prevalent pathologies. Studies show that for every year of potential life lost in the developed world, more than 200 times what is spent for every year of potential life lost in these undeveloped, disadvantaged countries in research and medical care. On the other hand, in these countries about 60% of research funding comes from industrialized countries. The pathological situation is characterized by the so-called “epidemiological transition”, characterized by the persistence of communicable diseases, but there is an upward trend in chronic-degenerative diseases (especially cardiovascular diseases), malignancies and accidents, In other words, non-communicable diseases are the most frequent causes of death in industrialized countries, despite the fact that certain communicable diseases (tuberculosis, VIH-AIDS, pneumonia, etc.) are shared.

With the recent appearance of the Covid-19 coronavirus pandemic, clinicians, epidemiologists, virologists, and other experts emphasized the permanence of these neglected or forgotten diseases that have higher morbidity and mortality than the Covid-19. Criticism is based on very specific and verifiable situations. Tuberculosis,Dengue, Measles, influenza epidemics originating in “feedlots”, among others. Social diseases with little interest in the media and where governments do not act effectively, dealing with curable diseases and preventable deaths. The health system of a country is not directly related to GDP, the proof is that there are developing countries with a better health system or good population health than others that are classified as developed and are even powerful. The question arises whether this attitude or management of a country’s health does not have a bias of social discrimination or a manifest eugenic disposition.

 

Noise pollution and its impact on human beings.

According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), hearing pollution is the second largest cause of pollution-
related diseases, after air pollution. The current one is considered the highest in human history.

The 10 noisiest cities in the world would be: Canton (China), New Delhi (India), Cairo (Egypt), Bombay (India), Istanbul (Turkey), Beijing (China), Barcelona (Spain), Mexico City (Mexico), Paris (France) and Buenos Aires (Argentine).

Beyond the different auditory pathologies produced by excess noise (Tinnitis, hearing fatigue, hearing loss, etc.) it is necessary to consider the general disorders on the body such as insomnia, learning problems, stress, as well as the risk of high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease and stroke.

Tobacco addiction

The World Health Organisation (WHO) recommends that tobacco addiction be treated as a public health problem. The measures recommended by the WHO have been implemented in Turkey and second in Brazil. Only 23 countries would offer treatments at the highest level to stop smoking. Internal Medicine considers it imperative to combat this pandemic.

The 10 leading causes of mortality according to the World Health Organization (WHO)

In the countries of high-income the not transmissible diseases  are the principal reason of death and represent 9 of 10 principal reasons of death. In the countries of low- income the situation is very different, other pathologies are a reason of death. The infection HIV / AIDS already does not figure between the first 10 reasons of death worldwide (WHO).

Yemen, between two continents: Midle East and Africa, a country that shares borders with Oman and Saudi Arabia. It´s the poorest country of the region.

28 million people  with hunger as a result of the war. MSF reported to was  opened a well equipped hospital (Mohka) and it does not obtain doctors to work there. United Nations (ONU) thinks that it is a very insecure area to give medical assistance.

 

 

Epidemics of the 21st century: Malnutrition (Hunger, Undernourished, Overweight, Obesity).

The Parliamentary World Summit against the Hunger and the Malnutrition

The number of persons who suffer Hunger has increased. The Overweight and the Obesity concern the fourth part of the world population. Between October 29 and 30, 2018 the Summit was done against the Hunger and the Malnutrition in Madrid, under the supervision of the FAO (United Nations Organization for the Food and the Agriculture). The hunger affects 821 million persons in the world (ONU). The new crisis of hunger puts in danger the life of million children (Unicef). And 1 of every 3 women in the world presents chronic anemia. Called all the Parliaments to assure the right to adequate food.

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