Endemic disease in the Democratic Republic of the Congo where it was discovered in humans in 1970. It rarely spread outside Africa. There is no specific vaccine, but those used to eradicate smallpox would be 85% effective.
After the global eradication of smallpox, the vaccine was discontinued. The problem is that most people under 45 are not vaccinated. The infection of the initial cases is due to direct contact with blood, body fluids, skin lesions or mucous membranes of infected animals. Secondary transmission (from person to person) may be through close contact with infected respiratory secretions, skin lesions, or biological fluids. Sexual transmission has not yet been established. Symptoms last between 14 and 21 dpuas and heal spontaneously.
WHO on 29/XI/2021 announced the new variant of the coronavirus it called “omicron” (B.1.1.529 of SARS-CoV-2). On the 24th of that month she was first informed from South Africa. It has an unprecedented number of mutations. The new subtype is being investigated. So far there is no certainty if the variant originated in South Africa or if it was the first country to detect it.
The WHO uses Greek letters to refer to variants, but to avoid discrimination changed the system. The British variant became “alpha”, the one discovered in South Africa “beta”, which seems to have originated in Brazil “gamma” and the one detected in India was called “delta”. To skip the letters “xi” (surname of the president of China) and “un” (phonetics similar to new in English) it was called “ómicron”.
2021: Global Outlook on Immunization
In the history of humanity there has never been such an expectation to carry out mass vaccination against an infectious disease as in these days. While some countries are suffering the first wave, others are already suffering the third wave, and there is even talk of a fourth wave, to which is added the reports of mutations of the virus
The development of vaccines and vaccination at the social level brings with it certain problems.
The lack of solidarity of nations in combating the pandemic is a proven fact. There has been no genuine health cooperation, even in the purchase of vaccines, where some countries have hoarded more than their real needs, harming other low-income countries.
It is possible that in one or two years the pandemic can be controlled, but nothing will be the same, there will be a before and after in all areas of society, including medicine, and politics through governments will be held accountable for what he did and also for what he stopped doing.
More than three million dead men per year for consumption of alcohol
For the World Health Organization (WHO), 3,3 million deaths take place every year in the world as consequence of the alcohol. The abusive use is a reason of more than 200 diseases and disorders. The alcohol is a psychoactive substance, that is capable of producing dependence and prejudices for the individual and his family, but also it´s an economic and social load. The WHO urges the members states to assume the commitment to fight against this scourge, and establishes political strategies and base interventions that are destined to protect the human health and the society.
Malnutrition in the World
In the WHO report of 1 April 2020, a number of facts and figures on malnutrition in the world population are to be found that deserve to be recorded:
- Malnutrition includes malnutrition (wasting, stunting and underweight), vitamin or mineral imbalances, overweight, obesity, and food-related non-communicable diseases.
- 1.9 billion adults are overweight or obese, while 462 million people are underweight
- Fifty-two million children under the age of five are wasted, 17 million are severely wasted, and 155 million are stunted, while 41 million are overweight or obese.
- About 45% of under-five deaths are related to malnutrition. Most are in low- and middle-income countries. At the same time, child overweight and obesity rates are increasing in those countries
- The development impact and economic, social and medical consequences of the global burden of malnutrition are severe and long-lasting, for individuals and their families, for communities and countries.
All countries in the world are affected by one or more forms of malnutrition.
On 1 April 2016, the United Nations General Assembly proclaimed the United Nations Decade of Action on Nutrition 2016-2025.
United Nations Decade of Action on Nutrition 2016-2025
Pandemic: second and third waves
The epidemiological map of the pandemic by Covid-19 reveals different evolutionary stages in the world. While several countries and regions have not overcome the first wave, others are undergoing the second wave and, there are also those who count the deaths of the third wave, verifying even more lethality, as is the case of Iran. The Persian nation is one of the countries in the Middle East most affected by the pandemic and, as in other countries, the official figures would be lower than the real ones (BBC, 16/10/2020). In the light of the relaxation of health precautions against the virus, it is necessary to note situations such as the task of women working voluntarily in the Iranian city of Qom to comply with the ancient Islamic tradition of bathing the dead before burying them. It is an impoverished and depleted country by years of sanctions and has the highest number of coronavirus deaths in the Middle East.
There is a sense of bewilderment around the world in the face of an increase in new cases in regions where the epidemic was believed to be under control. This situation depends on several factors, such as not wearing a chin, not respecting social distance, meeting indoors or not complying with hygiene measures.
Der Spiegel (The Mirror), the largest weekly in Europe and the most important in Germany, argues that governments deposit in a possible vaccine against Covid-19 salvation that compensates for its mistakes and shortcomings.
Communicable Diseases and the ECDC
European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, it’s an agency of the European Union which mission is to contribute to Europa’s defense against the infectious diseases. Created in 2005, with headquarters in Stockholm (Sweden), analyzes and interprets the information of the countries that integrate the European Union on 52 contagious diseases by means of an European System of Vigilance. Approximately 33.000 persons would die a year for infections with bacteria that are refractory to the antibiotics (Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter, Staphylococcus aureus)